NCTUCS 2013-Fall Introduction to Cryptography ...

NCTUCS 2013-Fall Introduction to Cryptography by Professor Rong-Jaye Chen.

LFSR == Linear Feedback Shift Register


Feedback shift register
connection polynomial:

C(x) = 1 + C_{1}x + C_{2}x^{2} + \cdots + C_{L}x^{L}  


If the feedback function is linear, the FSR is called LFSR


S_{L} = C_{1}S_{L-1} + C_{2}S_{L-2} + \cdots + C_{L}S_0{}  

is linear.


& \text{If } C(x) \text{ is primitive and the initial state } \\  
& (S_{0}, S_{1}, \cdots , S_{L-1}) \text{ is not zero, } \text{the period is } 2^{L} - 1  


A stream cipher constructed by a LFSR alone is not secure.

Nonlinear combination generators

  • Geff Generator (1973)

Nonlinear filter generators

Clcok-controlled generators

  • Stop-and-Go Generators (1987)
  • The Shrinking Generator (1993)
  • A5 (the GSM standard)
  • E0 (Bluetooth's standard encryption)

GSM A5/1

wikipedia - A5/1
Animation of A5/1 cipher



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